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FSB Headquarters, Lubyanka Square, Moscow, Russia | Photo via Pixabay


Since the beginning of the war in Ukraine, we have seen that cyberattacks have become a vital part of state’s military arsenal. As such, the last year has exposed that states develop and make use of deeply destructive malware in case of showdowns on the cybernetic battlefield.

At the heart of this battlefield lies Snake, an intricately designed malware attributed to the FSB’s elite group, Turla. Initially developed as “Uroburos” in 2003, Snake has proven itself formidable due to its stealth and complexity for more than two decades.

After two decades of relentless investigative efforts, the FBI has finally achieved a significant victory with the successful neutralization of Snake, courtesy of Operation MEDUSA. This carefully executed operation not only disarmed the potent Snake tool, but it also struck a significant blow to the widespread operations of Turla.

We will deconstruct the intricacies of Snake’s design, understand its operational tactics, fathom the vast expanse of its global impact, and appreciate the determined efforts that went into neutralizing it.

The story of Snake lays bare the realities of our digital world —the latent threats, the challenges in addressing them, and the significance of persistence in this tireless fight for cyber safety.

Unravelling Snake

Regarded as the most venomous instrument in the FSB’s arsenal, Snake derives its formidable prowess from three core facets: its state-of-the-art software engineering methods, its meticulously crafted design, and its inherent stealthiness that enables it to lurk undetected in targeted systems for years at a time.

Snake’s architectural design reveals professional software engineering practices. As though it had been grown in a lab, the malicious program was meticulously compiled with keen attention to detail to prevent detection at every level.

The core mechanisms within this malicious software consist of loosely coupled elements that realize well-crafted interfaces. These interfaces not only aid in streamlined software development but also facilitate efficient debugging processes; something rarely seen in malware.

Beyond its design sophistication, the primary operational objective of Snake lies in its long-term stealth on the targeted system. It operates covertly for months or years, lying in the shadows, providing the FSB, Russia’s Federal Security Service, with sustained access to valuable intelligence that would otherwise be challenging to obtain.

Snake’s Charmers: Turla

Turla, also known as Venomous Bear, is widely recognized as one of the most sophisticated and resilient cyber espionage groups. This group, believed to operate from Russia’s infamous Center 16, has a long-standing history of advanced cyber espionage activities that trace back to the late 1990s.

Their aim, akin to most cyber espionage outfits, is to extract sensitive information, a goal they’ve successfully achieved by breaching the cybersecurity defenses of dozens of high-profile targets across the globe.

Beyond Snake, Turla has an arsenal of other malware tools and techniques that it employs. It’s renowned for its use of watering hole attacks, spear-phishing emails, and even leveraging satellite-based Internet links to mask their operations. Their approach showcases a unique blend of innovative methods and advanced persistent threats, making Turla one of the most formidable cyber-espionage groups in operation today.

Blending In With the Scenery

The cyber threat posed by Turla through Snake is not restricted within Russia’s geographical boundaries. In fact, it extends well beyond, impacting over 50 countries across the continents of North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia.

With Snake, the FSB has penetrated high-priority targets such as government networks, research facilities, and journalists, amassing sensitive intelligence. Intriguingly, in most instances, Snake does not rely on deploying further heavyweight implants. Instead, it shows its fangs by using stolen credentials and lightweight remote-access tools already present within a network, reducing its digital footprint and enhancing its elusiveness.

However, despite the insightful open-source reporting by global cybersecurity and threat intelligence firms on Snake’s tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs), it has managed to continuously evolve, shedding its skin at every turn, and adopting novel techniques that allow it to evade detection.

The Antidote: Operation MEDUSA

After two decades of rigorous investigation, the U.S. government orchestrated a high-tech counter-offensive against Snake, code named Operation MEDUSA. Using an FBI-developed tool named PERSEUS, this operation neutralized Snake on compromised systems by issuing commands that caused the malware to overwrite its vital components.

PERSEUS proved to be an ingenious cure for the infection that spanned countless organizations. The FBI has warned that while there is no longer the threat of Snake, the cleanup may take months. Passwords will need to be rotated, keyloggers will need to be disabled, and back doors shut. Organizations struck by Snake are not out of the woods yet.

“The Justice Department, together with our international partners, has dismantled a global network of malware-infected computers that the Russian government has used for nearly two decades to conduct cyber-espionage,” stated Attorney General Garland.


The tale of Snake highlights the undeniable and critical importance of cybersecurity in our contemporary digital landscape.

The sheer sophistication of Snake and the persistent, successful covert operations carried out by the FSB serve as a stark reminder of the profound challenges faced by cybersecurity professionals globally. It underscores that these threats are not just scripts running on a computer but well-engineered, professionally maintained tools employed by highly skilled operatives.

The time it took for the U.S. to effectively counter Snake might lead some to question the apparent latency in this achievement. However, it’s important to appreciate the sheer complexity of this task. With the FBI investing nearly 20 years into investigating and countering Snake, it stresses the difficulty involved in dismantling such an intricate, global, and deeply embedded cyber espionage network. The FSB’s continuous evolution and enhancement of Snake’s TTPs, along with its ability to evade detection, significantly compounded the challenge.

Operation MEDUSA highlights the continued determination of law enforcement and cybersecurity agencies. This breakthrough is a testament to the relentless pursuit of safety and security in the digital realm. It signifies that despite the complexities and time it may take, the fight against cyber threats is continuous, and every effort counts in safeguarding our digital ecosystem.